AOC Craft Vietnam JSC

Sweet pop cards

AOC Craft Vietnam JSC

Draw pattern sweet home pop up card in corel draw

Draw pattern sweet home pop up card in corel draw

For more tutorials, videos or patterns, please follow and check out website at http://aoccraft.com/
Our website supply information about the cutting art, wood or paper cutting, free patterns or tutorials for DIY wood/paper cutting. Besides, you can find some articals for design with graphic software (as Coreldraw, photoshop, sketchup, blender….)

DOWNLOAD PATTERN CLICK HERE
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KIRIGAMI – Easy or Not ????? Level of players

What is kirigami?

Firstly, at the very beginning, let us show you some basic concepts of kirigami.

The term of “Kirigami” originally used in paper-cutting art of Japan (of which the main producing process is folding paper into sections, then trimming to create symmetrical cut paper pattern over 1 center). On 10/12/2010, the fanpage and club of 3D pop up card and paper cutting in VN was established on FB, using the term in refer to all type of paper cutting (perhaps because it is compact, rhyme and easy to read: D). Therefore, term of kirigami is commonly used at present, does not refer to paper cut art comes from Japan only. Because in fact, very few players in Vietnam followed trdiational Japanese style of kirigami (even Kirie – Japanese paper cutting painting, seems not very popular.)

 

In general, paper cutting art is basically divided into:

          -Bearly paper cutting: or ZERO degree kirigami. There are several sub categories in this type as silhouette, stencil, china paper cutting… This type is considered cornerstone for the latter development into other types.

          -Pop-up cards: 3D cards that can be folded into flat surface. There are several methods to creat 3D cards that can be opend in range from 0 to 360 degree. The content in such cards is ussuallly very abundant, basically devided into smaller groups:

               + Outline cutting: It is popular with cards designed by using triangle method combining slice form or multi layer. Glue is usually used to connect parts of card.

               + Pop up kiri (all motifs are created by cutting, color printing is limited or nod used). It’s common with slice form and multi layer, triangle style is relatively rare. Glue is not used. Latches or interlock links are usually used in such types.

               +OA (origami architechture) is presenting architecture on paper, often used sliceform (180 degree) or multilayer (90 degree). It is considered a typical group in pop up kiri.

So how to conclude? Is kirigami easy or not?

It’s hard to find out a general anwer for this question. There are many players said it’s easy, but no less than than say it’s too difficult, it depends on your own. Thus, this post is mainly to discuss the level of kirigami players, hope that it can be a reference to help you evaluafe your skill yourself. This ranking is for all categories that I presented before, because writer couldn’t have sound knowledge in all of them.

Level 1: Players that can cut based on available patterns.

In kirigami, the card are usually cut out and finished by the author, then there will be 1 cutting template (pattern) provided to people based on that; they then cut the lines on the paper to complete (0 degrees), or then fold to complete based on a sample of finished products (pop-up). It’s pretty easy for you to reach this level, because anyone can cut the lines on paper. Workmanship is classified based on the cutting speed and sharpness of line cutting, ability to folding 90 degree cards, OA, or attach precisely 180 degree pieces sliceform. Proficiency in this level, you have a clear understanding kirigami then. And it also decided your passion to kirigami, you’ll probably give up because it’s too boring, easily, because all you need is simply downloading pattern, printing on paper, then cutting and finishing, (nothing can be easier, right?). But there are also players who learn deeper in this subject, and move on to Level 2.

 

Level 2 refers to people who can redraw other’s work.

First of all, write would confirm that, redrawing a pattern is not a challenge, it does not require a professional drawing skill, or skillfulness. The only requirement is that the understanding of basic principle of kirigami, to explore the method used by the author, then finish the pattern is too simple. And to understand the principles, avoiding errors in the rendering process, they should have experience in cuttingand proficiency in cutting ability. Once player have mastered this level, usually forwarded to the next level, few people stop at this level without progress further.

 

Level 3 includes those modifying pattern of others into their style.

Based on available ideas and methods from their predecessors, players can change according to their own ideas. It requires greater creativity than just redrawing of others. With this level, players partly reflect their own self through work, and can also help distinguish themselves between many other kirigami fans.

 

Level 4: Realize your own ideas.

After redrawing the pattern of other authors, having ability to modify according to their own pattern, then gradually, players can also express their own ideas based on past experience. At this level, the individual mark is expressed most clearly, because it contains the whole idea as your understanding of kirigami, the auxiliary talents like drawing, matching, logic … to achieve this level, then you have one fairly broad understanding of kirigami, for each category, the simple, the complexity of each method, and choose the method and style appropriate for the charcoal. Once mastered it, you can flatten almost the whole world in your way, can produce your own style, his own image in the community kirigami. Among those who express their own ideas through works in kirigami, there is obviously some people that still keep the style  of the author before who they go under, and sometimes difficult to escape from that style, like a trail. But surely, there will be no doubt about love and passion for kirigami of those players 🙂

 

Level 5: Realize the idea of ​​other people

You may be wondering, why level 4 is not the highest level, which is the highest level. In my point of view, then at level 4, every work is customized to author’s style, thus no matter it’s beautiful or not, it’s still achievement of author. But at this level, on the other, to express the idea of ​​other people, other people’s mark is what left on the paper, combining author’s style and other’s idea into the design is not an easy task, especially when the idea was to not have a deep understanding of this subject. More importantly, when the work is created, others will be given, give damn it, the designer will have to accept this, like it or not. So surely it is harder in comparison with developing author’s own idea.

WAY TO SUCCESS – Pop up card pattern

 

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“Only those who dare to fail greatly can ever achieve greatly.”

Do you take any risks in your life? Do you set your goals high, and then work hard to reach them? If not, how much progress can you be making? Of course, there is always a slight chance that you might fail, but you will have learned invaluable lessons along the way. So don’t be scared to have high expectations for yourself. If you have reached one goal, set another one, one that might be even more of a challenge. For example, maybe you want to run a marathon, but are too scared to make this your goal. You are allowed to start small. Start by just running a local 5k, and then a 10k. Smaller victories along your path will lead to greater ones.

We attach here a new pattern from author Tien Phuong. Hope that you will always keep your passion and strong desire to achieve success in the future.

The patterned is designed and drafted by Sketchup software

DOWNLOAD HERE

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For more tutorials, videos or patterns, please follow and check out website at http://aoccraft.com/
Our website supply information about the cutting art, wood or paper cutting, free patterns or tutorials for DIY wood/paper cutting. Besides, you can find some articals for design with graphic software (as Coreldraw, photoshop, sketchup, blender….)
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How to drawDraw pattern Tianjin Eye Bridge (OA 180)quilling pattern

Draw pattern Tianjin Eye Bridge (OA 180)

Draw pattern Tianjin Eye Bridge (OA 180)

Tianjin Eye is a 120-metre (394 ft) tall giant Ferris wheel built above the Yongle Bridge (formerly Chihai Bridge), over the Hai Riverin Tianjin, China. It is claimed to be the only such wheel to have been constructed over a bridge.

Construction started in 2007, with completion of the main body on 18 December 2007, and the wheel opened to the public on 7 April 2008.

At the time of its completion, only the 135 m (443 ft) London Eye, 160 m (525 ft) Star of Nanchang, and 165 m (541 ft) Singapore Flyer were taller.

Tianjin Eye is one of four 120 m Ferris wheels in China, the other three being Changsha Ferris Wheel (completed 2004), Suzhou Ferris Wheel (completed 2009), and Zhengzhou Ferris Wheel (completed 2003). The only Chinese Ferris wheel with a greater height is the 160 m (525 ft) Star of Nanchang, which opened in 2006.

Tianjin Eye is electrically powered and has 48 passenger capsules, each able to carry 8 passengers, and takes 30 minutes to complete a rotation, giving a maximum capacity of 768 passengers per hour.

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For more tutorials, videos or patterns, please follow and check out website at http://aoccraft.com/
Our website supply information about the cutting art, wood or paper cutting, free patterns or tutorials for DIY wood/paper cutting. Besides, you can find some articals for design with graphic software (as Coreldraw, photoshop, sketchup, blender….)

DOWNLOAD PATTERN CLICK HERE
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Download Pattern + Video – New idea for globe sliceform

 

Sliceform is a method of modeling a 3D model by piecing the pieces together. The pieces are tied together by many groove. It is used in many works by pop up artists like Yee design, Marrivi, Hiroko…

Download Pattern

For more tutorials, videos or patterns, please follow and check out website at http://aoccraft.com/
Our website supply information about the cutting art, wood or paper cutting, free patterns or tutorials for DIY wood/paper cutting. Besides, you can find some articals for design with graphic software (as Coreldraw, photoshop, sketchup, blender….)
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Draw pattern dragonfly pop up card – AOC Craft

Draw pattern dragonfly pop up card – AOC Craft

For more tutorials, videos or patterns, please follow and check out website at http://aoccraft.com/
Our website supply information about the cutting art, wood or paper cutting, free patterns or tutorials for DIY wood/paper cutting. Besides, you can find some articals for design with graphic software (as Coreldraw, photoshop, sketchup, blender….)

DOWNLOAD PATTERN CLICK HERE
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Draw koifish paper cutting

Draw koifish paper cutting

Learning it’s history helps to answer the question, “What do koi fish symbolize?”. By knowing koi’s long history, you can more easily understand why people revere this beautiful fish so deeply

Many of the attributes of the koi symbolize several lessons and even trials individuals often encounter in life. The koi fish has a powerful and energetic life force, demonstrated by its ability to swim against currents and even travel upstream. Some of the characteristics associated with the koi include:

  • Good fortune
  • Success
  • Prosperity
  • Longevity
  • Courage
  • Ambition
  • Perseverance

Many of the above described symbolic meanings of koi fish stem from the Chinese legend of the Dragon Gate in which a koi fish swam upstream, through waterfalls and other obstacles to reach the top of the mountain. At the top of the mountain was the “Dragon Gate”. The legend says that when the koi finally reached the top, it became a dragon, one of the most auspicious creatures in Chinese culture.

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For more tutorials, videos or patterns, please follow and check out website at http://aoccraft.com/
Our website supply information about the cutting art, wood or paper cutting, free patterns or tutorials for DIY wood/paper cutting. Besides, you can find some articals for design with graphic software (as Coreldraw, photoshop, sketchup, blender….)

DOWNLOAD PATTERN CLICK HERE
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AOC Craft
Website: http://aocraft.com
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Design heart pop up card

Design heart pop up card

Design heart pop up card

For more tutorials, videos or patterns, please follow and check out website at http://aoccraft.com/
Our website supply information about the cutting art, wood or paper cutting, free patterns or tutorials for DIY wood/paper cutting. Besides, you can find some articals for design with graphic software (as Coreldraw, photoshop, sketchup, blender….)

DOWNLOAD PATTERN CLICK HERE
—————————————-­—–
AOC Craft
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Draw ceiling lamp for wood cutting

wood cutting

Software: Sketchup

Tool:

 – Curve: Draw curves

 – Push: Change object’s thickness

 – Array: When you move or rotate an object, you can copy it by press number and x or / (exam 5x, 5/ …)

Start:

First, start with rectangle. I always with a rectangle, to make a face and then I can draw everything on this face with draw tool as curve, line or freehand…

Use curve to draw a curve on that face to make a rail of lamp

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Beacau the rail mirror then I only draw a half and then copy and flip it.

Then I make that rail to a component (press G – defaul). If I make a component, then I can fix one object for all the same components copy.

Draw a circle to hold the rails

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Push the rail with high same thickness wood

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Rotate and copy the rail component: Choose the component, then use rotate tool (Q) to rotate it, with center at center of the circle. And depend angle of rotate, you can multply or divide to copy components.

Exam: If you want to rotate 12degree, and copy to 30 component (for 360degree of all) , you can do 2 ways:

– Rotate 12 degrees and hold Ctrl to duplicate, then press 29x (multiply)

– Rotate 360 degrees and hold Ctrl to duplicate, then press 29/ (divide)

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Push the holding circle with the thickness of wood

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Scale to make the lamp as you want

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Test lampshade: You can creat a light bulb to render and test shading

– Creat a Light bulb

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– Apply material and texture for lamp

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– Render to test shading

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When you feel everything ok, comeback sketchup and export rails, holding circle to vector file, prepare pattern for wood cutting (by CNC, laser machine, or by scroll saw, carving wood…)

Full video for ceiling wood lamp drawing, please watch

For more tutorials or free pattern paper/wood cutting, please visit our website http://aoccraft.com

Some materials in fretwork and marquetry (part 2)

fretwork

2. Woods

Although any kind of wood may be used by the fretcutter, certain of them are more likely to be met with than others, and a short description of the principal will be useful. Only those which can be easily obtained, either from an ordinary timber dealer or from fretwork specialists, are mentioned. Many of them, being used in the construction of ordinary articles of furniture, can be obtained at a cabinet-maker’s if there is no timber yard available.

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Ash — Coarse in grain, with large figure, without much variety. Hard and tough. The colour varies from a light yellow to a light brown. The Hungarian variety is very different from the ordinary, being full of figure and of a different colour. It is generally used in the form of veneers and is not a pleasant wood to cut.

Beech — A fine, close-grained, hard wood, mostly of a lightreddish-brown colour, though some of it is nearly white. It is a nice clean-cutting wood, and polishes well either in its own natural colour or stained.

Birch — A similar wood, but with a much finer figure in the choicer varieties.

Cedar —  The ordinary variety is the material of which cigar boxes are generally made, and may often be confounded by the novice with mahogany, which it to a certain extent resembles. It is coarse in the grain, without much figure, and moderately soft. It must not be mistaken for the fragrant variety known as pencil cedar. This is a very soft silky wood without much figure, close grained, and pleasant to work, but is easily split.

Canary — This, as generally sold for fret purposes, is a soft American wood often simply called whitewood, but of a yellowish tinge. It is remarkably free from knots and there is practically no figure. It cuts well and easily.

Cherry — Close grained, hard, light reddish-brown in colour, and very suitable for fine work.

Chestnut — There are two distinct varieties, one of them being the timber of the Spanish or eating chestnut tree, and the other of the horse-chestnut tree. The former bears a great similarity to oak. It works well and freely. The wood of the horse-chestnut has very little figure, is close and soft, and is of a light colour, much of it being almost white. On this account it is often useful as a substitute for holly.

Ebony — Ebony wood dyed black is generally used instead of real ebony, which is not a pleasant wood to cut, being very hard and troublesome in other respects. Very little ebony is absolutely black.

Holly — This wood, as prepared for the fretcutter, is chiefly American, and is of a beautiful creamy white, closely resembling ivory. It is hard and close grained, with little figure. This latter feature along with its colour are the characteristics which render it of value to the fretcutter. White chestnut, or the finer kinds of sycamore, may be used as substitutes. It should not be polished or varnished, as treatment of this kind destroys the purity of its colour. This being so delicate is apt to become dirty when handled during working, but may be restored by rubbing on a little whiting with a soft rag or cloth.

Lime — Light coloured and in general features resembles holly, but is softer and not so white. American lime tree is often called bass or American whitewood, and under this name can be obtained at many timber yards. It is very clean and free from knots.

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Maple — A light yellowish-brown wood, hard and close grained, without much figure in the plain kind. ” Bird’s Eye ” maple, on the contrary, is distinguished by the richness of its figuring. It owes its name to the peculiar configuration of the small knots which form the centres of the markings. It is generally used in the form of veneers ; it is not a pleasant or easy wood to cut with the fretsaw.

Oak — Though hard, this is by no means an unpleasant wood to work, and for many articles is to be preferred to any other. There are many varieties. Without detailing these, it may be sufficient to say that American oak as a rule is the plainest, while the better kinds are known as Dantzig, Riga, wainscot, etc. In colour oak in­clines from a, light yellow, almost white, to a dark brown, and is generally distinguished by dealers in fretwork woods simply as light or brown. The finely figured variety, known as pollard oak, is not suitable for using except as veneers. As oak is a wood that can easily be stained to a darker tint than the natural one, like coloured wood it is more useful than the brown. Light oak, being very easily darkened by ammoniacal vapours, should not be kept in a stable or where it is subject to such fumes. This tendency in oak is taken advantage of to darken it by what is called fumigation, a most useful process as the wood is not roughened as it is when a liquid stain is applied.

Mahogany — This wood is too well known to need much des­cription. It is an admirable material for the fretcutter or any worker in wood, as it cuts well and cleanly, is susceptible of a very high degree of finish, and in the choicer sorts is beautifully marked. These, on account of their value, are principally used in veneers. There is probably no wood in which so much variety is found as in this, and there is a corresponding range in the prices charged for it. The plainest and softest is Honduras mahogany, frequently called baywood. Some of it is fairly well figured, but as a rule it is plain and of only a moderate hardness. It is very suitable for general use, either for fretting in the solid, or as a foundation on which to lay the more choicely figured veneers. Spanish mahogany is harder and of better figure. The term ” Spanish ” is of very wide application, and if some other kind which may not be strictly Spanish is equally as good in figure the exact place of growth is not a matter of importance.

Olive — Of a light yellow-brown colour, finely variegated with darker markings, is hard, fine in grain, easily worked, and takes a good polish.

Pine — Though looked upon as a common wood, there is no reason why it should not be more largely employed than it is by the fretworker, for it is by no means without a beauty of its own, while it is both easy to work and inexpensive. As there are many

varieties of pine, it may be well to say that common spruce which is full of knots is not so suitable as the yellow or red pine, which can often be obtained in nice, straight-grained, clean pieces. If left ” in the white ” or unpolished it looks very well, and by be­coming darker improves in appearance with age.

Pitch Pine — Pitch pine is a distinct variety, much harder and more decidedly figured than the ordinary kinds. As it contains a large quantity of resin it is not a pleasant wood to cut.

Rosewood — Like the last and for the same reasons this is also somewhat difficult to saw, especially as it is hard and close in texture. In colour it varies from a dark red to brown with strongly marked darker figuring. Genuine rosewood is fragrant, but this characteristic is absent in many varieties, almost exactly the same in appearance, which have found their way into the market. If used for its smell the wood should preferably be left unpolished.

Sycamore — A very clean, nice-working wood, tolerably hard, and varying in colour from almost pure white to a dirty brown tinge. It is close in grain, and when white is an excellent substitute for holly.

Satinwood — This is a beautiful yellow wood, often finely figured with smooth lustrous markings after the style of choicemahogany, which it resembles except in colour. It has anagreeable odour, and though hard is pleasant to work.

Sequoia or Californian Red Pine — This is the softest wood known, but it is not altogether a satisfactory one, as it easily splits, so that it is quite unsuitable for fine delicate work. In appearance it is not unlike pencil cedar, but has none of its fragrance. As a substitute for pine itmay be used for drawer sides, etc., the backs of cupboards, and inside work generally. Its chief advantages are that it is verystraight in the grain and free from knots. Being soft and cheap, it is a good wood for the beginner to practise with.

Walnut — Black or American walnut is the most suitable for the fretcutter. It is hard but pleasant to work in, being generallyfree from knots and evenly grained. The beautifully figured variety known as burr or Italian walnut is used only as veneers.

This list by no means exhausts the kinds of wood that may be used or met with, and it might be almost indefinitely extended by naming those which are of comparative rarity or not so generally used by the fretcutter. 

Yew — Yew is a finely marked, close grained wood, in colour varying from a pale yellowish orange to a reddish tint with dark small markings or knots almost black in colour. It is tough and hard and cuts cleanly.

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The appearance of polished or varnished wood is different to some extent from what it is when the wood is in the natural orunpolished state. As a rule the depth and richness of thecolour is increased. In the absence of a polished piece, the appearance can be judged very closely by wetting the surface of the wood with water. While the gloss caused by this remains it may be compared to polish.

All kinds change in appearance with time, most of them getting darker ” as the years roll on.” A few of the more brightly coloured ones, such as tulip wood, fade.

In addition to those woods which have been named as generally used in the form of thin veneers, there are many others which are used principally in this state, and a brief enumeration of some of the principal will be useful. As veneers they cannot be used except for inlays or overlays, as they are not thick enough to form anything of by themselves. Both these forms of fretcutting will be treated of in due course, but it may occasionally happen that the cutter wants to do something in a choicer wood than he can obtain in the solid. In this case, the only way is to mount the veneer beforehand on a solid piece of the necessary thickness, and then proceed to cut it as though it were an unveneered piece of board. If the board is veneered on both sides it will be almost impossible, except by the closest examination, to see that it is not cut out of a solid piece. By this means a considerable saving in the cost of material may often be effected, and, as already sug­gested, it is the only way in which some veneers can be vised for plain cut through frets. In order that the edges may not betray the fact of a board having been veneered, it is necessary that the foundation and the veneers should be of the same kind of wood. Thus, if a choice Spanish veneer is being used, let it be mounted on a piece of cheap plain Honduras. The endeavour must be to have the foundation of the same colour as the veneers. If this cannot be managed, the edges must be afterwards stained. As the process of laying veneers is a difficult one without a good deal of experience, the best way for the amateur to do in such cases is to enlist the services of a cabinet-maker who is con­versant with the work.

<To be continued>

<Source:  Fretwork and Marquetry, D. Denning, 1895 >

Some materials in fretwork and marquetry

fretwork

1. Introduce

The principal material used by the fretcutter is wood, and he should attain skill in cutting this before using others either more difficult to work or more costly. Among the other materials may be mentioned brass, and the softer metals, mother of pearl, vulcanite, xylonite, ivory, etc. Wood is the material for which most of the published designs are prepared. There is amplescope in this one material alone. He can choose wood nearly white, or, if he prefers it, black, for ebony is nearly so if not quite, or he can have wood dyed in a variety of colours. A few of the chief characteristics of the various kinds of timber most commonly used will be useful, as well as a few hints about buying wood, and the way in which it is specially prepared for the fretcutter.

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Wood may be bought at the ordinary timber yards, but many of the fancy varieties are not always to be met with in this manner and it is rarely to be got of suitable thickness. Generally the timber merchant does not care to cut a board, so that the purchaser is compelled to take more than he requires. Naturally the prices at the timber yard are less than those quoted by dealers who will cut any size required. To do this means waste, for which the dealer must be recouped. Those who buy in large quantities will find that a considerable saving is to be effected by going to a timber yard for what they want. On the other hand, they will seldom be able to get the wood planed smooth at a timber yard, as it will be rough from the saw. This, however, is not a very serious objection, as if the fretcutter does not care to do this work himself he can get it done for him by any cabinet-maker. When purchas­ing wood it is necessary to be careful to select well-seasoned dry stuff, and if it is got from an open timber yard it is very likely not to be dry, although it may be thoroughly seasoned. Timber should be kept in a warm dry room for a time before it is used, but on noaccount should any attempt be made to hasten the drying by placing it too near a fire. If this is done the wood is very apt toshrink, split, or twist. As it is not an easy matter to judgewhether wood is seasoned or not, although there are certain signs by which an expert can generally tell, the best plan for the amateur is to deal only with a reliable merchant to whom the selection may be left. Wood specially prepared and sold by dealers in fretwork materials may almost invariably be depended on for being dry and well seasoned.

 

Boards are not always so flat as they ought to be. When a board is really badly twisted it will seldom be of much use wasting time over it, as it rarely happens that any improvement can be effected except by planing it down, and in the case of thin boards there isnot enough stuff to allow of this being done. It often happens that a board has become rounded or convex on the one side and concave on the other. In this case it is often possible to flatten the wood without much trouble. Wood on being damped swells, consequently if wetted on one side that becomes convex and the other correspondingly concave, or to use the more usual workshop term, it is rounded on the one side and hollowed on the other. If the hollowed side be equally damped it will in its turn swell, so that the board again becomes flat, and if both sides are dried equally it will remain so in all probability. In practice it is not a good plan to damp wood more than can be helped, so the hollow side is rarely wetted, but the converse plan of drying the rounded side is adopted. This may be managed by placing it for a short time near the fire, but not too near or it may split or curl thereverse way. It is impossible to give precise directions, as so much depends on circumstances. Occasionally it may even be preferable to swell the hollow side by damping it, and very little moisture is required to effect what is necessary. Where there is plenty of sawdust about it is not an uncommon plan to moisten a few hand-fuls of this and to let it lie on the hollow side of the wood for a few hours. Boards may often be flattened by simply laying them down on a cold floor with the hollow side downwards, or by placing them against a wall. In every case the principle of swelling the hollow side or shrinking the rounded one is the basis on which boards are treated, unless it is necessary to plane them down.

some-material-in-fretwork-and-marqurtry 

Wood in such quantities as the amateur is likely to require is sold by the square foot, except a few varieties which are generally sold by weight. Wood being sold and quoted for per square foot may mislead the novice by inducing him to suppose that if he orders a foot or any number of feet he will get a piece one or several feet square. The superficial measurement is taken in calculating the number of feet the board contains, thus a board 2ft. long by 6in. wide is only 1ft., the same as one measuring,12in. by 12in. When ordering wood, more than the actualquantity apparently required must be got, as it is impossible to work it up without some waste. The amount of this depends on the job, and the cutter will soon learn to estimate it with a sufficient amount of accuracy. If more is got than is required for a special article, the odd pieces which are left over will very likely come in handy for making up some small thing, so unless very small they should not be thrown away.

The wood that is specially prepared for fretworkers is generally in certain definite thicknesses, and these are 1/8, 1/4, and 3/4 in. In addition to solid wood in these thicknesses, what is known as 3-ply wood is also prepared, each board being made up of three veneers with the grain of the middle one in the contrary direc­tion to that of the outsides. From this arrangement the 3-ply boards are less likely to twist or split than when in the natural state. They are also much stronger, and on that account are to be preferred to solid wood for fine, delicate work. The 3-ply is not obtainable in greater thickness than Jin. It is always sold planed and finished, ready for use.

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While speaking of the thickness of wood, it is usual to speak of wood by its nominal thickness. This remark hardly applies to specially prepared fretwood, which is often sold at its actual thickness. When wood is got from the ordinary timber yard, the purchaser should be careful to explain whether the thickness he wants is the nominal one or the thickness ” down,” which means after the wood has been finished smooth by planing ” down.” The reason for boards not being of their nominal thickness may be explained in a few words. If an inch board, that is, one an inch thick, is divided into four, each piece is nominally Jin. thick. Actually these boards are less, as the saw cuts or kerfs have removed some of the wood in the form of sawdust. The wood being rough from the saw is further reduced in thickness by smoothing.

Wood is also sold in the form of veneers, which are very thin, so that they cannot be used by themselves, but have to be stuck on to a solid foundation or ground. Veneered fretwork is generally used in the form of inlays or overlays, both of which will be explained in due course. To the marquetry-cutter they are essential, as all marquetry is done with them. Veneers are prepared in two different ways, known as knife-cut and saw-cut. The former is very thin, though cheaper it is not so suitable for the kind of work under consideration. It is merely mentioned to put the purchaser in a position to know what kind of veneer to get. The ordinary saw-cut veneer is in every way better for working with. The value of most kinds of wood varies according to the choiceness and variety of its figure or markings. Some woods, however, such as holly, depend a great deal more on their purity of colour and absence of figure. These, however, are theexceptions. <To be continued>

<Source:  Fretwork and Marquetry, D. Denning, 1895 >